  # Hybrid System Design And Calculation – Part 5

Hybrid System Design And Calculation – Hello everyone! We have come to the last part of this series. And here, we will discuss the design and calculations involved in building a hybrid solar power system. Okay so, let’s begin! Solar power system basic design and calculations part 5 or 5, hybrid system design and calculations.

## Hybrid System Design And Calculation

The hybrid system is almost the same as the upgrade system that we have discussed in the previous lecture. The only difference is the solar charge controller and the inverter. Now is combined,1 piece of equipment. There is also added equipment which is the ATS or the automatic transfer switch. This one switches between your normal power source. In this case, your solar power setup, and you are reserved power source or your backup source which is yours.

### Designing a hybrid system

There are four steps involved in designing a hybrid system:

2. Sizing of the solar array
3. Sizing of the inverter
4. Sizing of the battery bank

The goal here is there doesn’t mean what your daily power consumption is. So, that is quite simple, just take your electric bill, check your monthly consumption, and divide it by three to base, and that’s it. For example, we are consuming around 170 kilowatt-hours per month divided by 30 days, your daily power consumption is 5.67 kilowatt-hours per day.

 Monthly Consumption = 170 kWh Daily Consumption = 170 kWh/30 day Daily Consumption = 5.67 kWh/day

#### 2. Sizing of the solar array

Now, that we have calculated how much power we can shoot daily. We also need to determine how much Sun is getting or what we call the Sun Sun peak hours. So, the Sun peak hours is the duration at which Phoebe’s intensity of sunlight is 1,000 watts per square meters, and the average sun peak hours is usually around four to five hours. And that value varies as you move away from the equator.

There are locations where they have longer days, and I will have longer nights. So, this bit of information, I will make you google yourself, find out what for maybe some peak hours to compete for the required capacity of our solar panels. We should divide the daily consumption where the Sun peak hours, and multiply that by 1.3. So, that’s 5.6 – 7 kilo divided by 5 hours multiplied by 1.3.

We will require a minimum solar PV power of 1,475 kilowatts. Now, suppose we have a solar panel with a power rating of 380 watts to compute. How many of these are required? We just need to divide the power by the rating of our solar panel which is 380 watts. So, 1,475 kilowatts divided by 380 watts begin 3.88, or we round this up. So, we need 4 pieces of this 380 bucks. Daily Consumption = 5.67 kWh/day Sun Peak Hours = 5 hoursPV Power = (Daily Consumption/Sun Peak Hours) x 1.3 PV Power = (5.67 kWh/5 hours) x 1.3 PV Power = 1.475 kWNo of PV Panels = PV Power / PV Panel PR No of PV Panels = 1.475 kW / 380 W No of PV Panels = 3.88 No of PV Panels = ∼ 4 PV Panel PR = 380 Watts V DC = 48.8 V I SC = 9.94 A Eff = 19.5 %

#### 3. Sizing of the inverter

Step number three that’ll be sizing the inverter to size our hybrid inverter. We need to take the actual power output of our solar PV array. The solar panel that we’ll be using as a power rating of 300 watts, and then multiply this by the quantity which we have computed previously creatures for the resolve would be 1520 watts. This is the output of our solar PV array then this will also be the minimum power rating of one of our inverters.

 PV Panel PR = 380 Watts No of PV Panels = ∼ 4 Maximum PV Power = PV Panel PR x  No of PV Panels Maximum PV Power = 380 Watts x 4 Maximum PV Power = 1,520 W Choose an inverter with a Max PV Array Power (WP) greater than the Maximum PV Power (1,520 W)Max PV Array Power (WP) > 1,520 W Max PV Array Power (WP) = 3,000 W Max PV Array Power (WP) = 3,000 W Max VDC Input = 500 V Max Input Current = 18 A

But, since we don’t have an inverter rated exactly, at this rating of 1521, we will choose the next higher value available. So, in this case, we’ll choose a hybrid inverter greater than 3 kilowatts. Next, we’ll check if the other inverter parameters such as the voltage input, and the current input car are enough with respect to our solar panel.

Okay now, suppose we will connect our solar panels in series. Let’s check its output voltage now for a series connection. The voltages are additive, so the total voltage output will be 48.8 volts times 4 because we have fallen for solar panels in series connected, the total voltage is 195.2 for PV. This value is less than the maximum voltage input of our inverter which is 540. So, this inverter is okay.

Now, let’s see if the maximum input current is also enough for a series connection. The current is the same, which means for solar panels connected in series for each with each having a short-circuit current of 9.94 amps. The current output of our solar array will still be 9.94 amperes. This is still lower than the maximum input current that our inverter is rated which is a canal of 18 amperes. So, this inverter is still very much sufficient. PV Panel PR = 380 Watts V DC = 48.8 V I SC = 9.94 A Eff = 19.5 % Make sure that the voltage and current output of your solar PV Arrays do not exceed the voltage and current output of your inverter.PV Array VOUT (Series) = V DC x  No. of PV Panel PV Array VOUT (Series) = 48.8 V DC x 4 PV Array VOUT (Series) = 195.2 V DCPV Array VOUT (Series) 195.2 V DC < Max V DC Input (500 V DC) PV Array ISC (Series) 9.94 V < Max Input Current 18 A Max PV Array Power (WP) = 3,000 W Max VDC Input = 500 V Max Input Current = 18 A

#### 4. Sizing of the battery bank

I think the battery bank involves load analysis on the plan appliances you want to run on batteries. So, in here, you list down all the electrical equipment in your house, and for example, we suppose we have LED lights already, TV, electric fan, a fridge, laptop, washing machine. Next, you need power for each of our appliances. The next step is to push down the quantity for each of our appliances, for example, we have 4 LED lights, 1 TV, 2 fans, 1 fridge, 1 laptop, and 1 wash machine.

Next, we multiply this unit power by the quantity to get the total power for each type of equipment.

NoAppliancesEnergyQuantitySub TotalDurationTotal Consumption
1LED lights9 watts436 watts7 hours252 watts
2TV500 watts1500 watts1 hour500 watts
3Electric Fan200 watts2400 watts2 hours800 watts
4Fridge700 watts1700 watts5 watts3,500 watts
Total Consumption5,052 Watts

You can use our energy calculator to calculate total consumption. We’ll have the power consumption for each piece of equipment. We sum this all up, and we have the total power consumption that we required to total power consumption of the equipment that will run on batteries.

We shall outsize the battery bank capacity depending on 4 factors namely; the daily power consumption which we have calculated in the previous, the DoD or the depth of discharge of the battery, the efficiency of the battery, and the system voltage.

The system voltages primarily depend on the user as a guide a 12-volt system is suitable for small installations, particularly 1,200 watts, and smaller a 24 volts system is suitable for medium-sized installations between 1200 watts to 2400 watts, and for and the 48 volts system is mainly used for large installations, such as 2400 watts and above. VR= 12 V Battery Rating= 250 Ah DoD = 50% Eff = 85% Battery Bank Capacity = Daily Consumption/(DoD x Eff x System Voltage) Battery Bank Capacity = 5.012 kWh / (0.5 x 0.85 x 48 V) Battery Bank Capacity = 245.69 AhNo. of String = Battery Bank Capacity / Battery Rating No. of String = 245.69 Ah / 250 Ah No. of String = ∼ 1No. of Series = System Voltage / VR No. of Series = 48 V / 12 V No. of Series = 4 No. of String = 1 No. of Series = 4 Guideline System Voltage12 V = Small Installation (<1,200 Watts) 24 V = Medium Installation (1,200 Watts – 2,400 Watts) 48 V = Large Installation (> 2,400 Watts)

So, to compute the battery bank capacity that is required, we divide the daily consumption which is 5 kilowatts by the product of the DoD point 5, times efficiency point 85%, and times 48 volts for our system voltage. So, our battery bank capacity would be 245.1669 ampere-hours. This is our completed required battery bank capacity. Now, suppose we have a battery bank with a 12 volts output, 250 amperes, and beer ever our capacity at the audio 50%, and efficiency of 85% will need to compete for the required their battery capacity.

I’m gonna have to compete for the series and strings the series and stream the configuration of our battery bank. So, to compete for the number of strings, we shall divide the required battery capacity is 245.1669 divided based on the battery capacity of our battery capacity rating itself which is 250. So, that’s will be 1. And to compete for the number of series, we need to divide the system voltage by the voltage rating of our battery, so that’s 40 volts divided by 12 volts, and we have 4. That means, we need 4 of these batteries connected in series. So, that’s it one stream and for business, batteries connected in series.

### Building Hybrid System

Okay, so now, that we have all the data that we need. Let us build our hybrid system. The hybrid system is composed of 4 major parts.

1. The solar power array
2. The hybrid inverter
3. The battery pack
4. The automatic transfer switch

The solar panels convert solar energy into electrical energy, and this electrical energy will then be used to charge the battery bank through the hybrid inverter. The hybrid inverter has a built-in charge controller that prevents the battery bank from overcharging. This hybrid inverter also converts DC voltage from the solar panels, or the battery bank into AC voltage that can be used by regular household appliances. The Hybrid System Design is connected to the power grid. So, during the day, it can fashion like an ungraded system while also charging the batteries, and during the night or during blackouts, the batteries will be utilized to power up the loads, just like be off-grid system. But when the stored energy in the batteries is depleted, the APS automatically switches to the reserve or backup power source, and that will be the grid.

Okay, in step one, we have computed the daily power consumption by dividing the monthly electric consumption stated in the electricity bill by 30 days. In this example, the daily consumption is 5.67 kilowatt-hours per day. In step four, we have also computed the required by the bank load which is 5 kilowatts. In step two, we have determined that for daily consumption of 5.67 kilowatt-hours, we need 4 pieces of 380 volts solar panel rated 380 watts. In step number three, we calculated that the inverter should have a rating equal to/or higher than the power output of our solar array which is 152 watts, and this example was chosen and worked with the power rating of 3 kilowatts which is higher than this. In step number four, we have chosen which appliances are to be operational during the night, or during blackouts. We have computed that the total load consumption would be around 5 kilowatts. So, in order for a battery bank to supply part of this amount of load, we need around 4 pieces of battery, rated at 250 ampere-hours each.

Well, the next step is to compute for the circuit breakers.

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